Assessment of serum Interleukin-1β and its correlation with periodontal health status during pregnancy


Background: Pregnancy is a stressful state of increased inflammatory activity, and pregnancy – associated hormonechanges can influence periodontal tissues, these inflammatory activity lead to production of inflammatorymediators. Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) is a potent pro-inflammatory cytokines that is consistently associated withperiodontal diseases. This study was designed to determine the periodontal health status and detect the serum levelof IL-1β in the healthy pregnant women at first, second and third trimester and compare it with healthy non pregnantwomen, and determine its correlation with different clinical periodontal parameters.Materials and Methods: Subjects included in the study were sixty six (66) healthy pregnant women with an age rangeof 20-35 years old. They were divided into three subgroups according to gestational age, as twenty two (22) womenin each trimester. Also the sample included fifteen (15) married, non pregnant women and didn’t takecontraceptive pills, as control group with same age rang of 20- 35 years. Clinical periodontal parameters weremeasured in this study (plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth and clinicalattachment level). Blood samples were collected from all women under study (pregnant & non pregnant women) toasses concentrations of IL-1β by mean of enzyme – linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA).Results: Highly significant statistical differences were observed among the study groups regarding the gingival index(GI)with p-value( 0.007) and the percentages of bleeding on probing (BOP) p- value(0.00), a significant differenceregarding the probing pocket depth ( PPD) with p-value (0.046) ,and non significant statistical differences regardingthe plaque index (PLI), p-value(0.6) and clinical attachment level (CAL) with p-value (0.371). Interleukin 1-beta ( IL-1β) serum level showed a highly statistical significant difference among the study groups with p-value (0.00).Apregnant women showed higher level than non pregnant with a higher value in the second trimester.Conclusions: The present result revealed that the serum level of IL-1β was higher in pregnant women than nonpregnant women with a highly significant difference. The IL-1β serum concentration reaches the maximum value inthe second trimester of pregnancy. Nevertheless there were weak correlations between clinical periodontalparameters and serum level of IL-1β