Periodontal condition in relation to nutritional status among kindergarten children in Al-Ramadi city/Iraq


Background: Nutrition can affect periodontal disease through contributing to microbial growth in the gingivalcrevice, affecting the immunological response to bacterial antigens and assisting the repair mechanism of theconnective tissue at the local site after injury from plaque and calculus. The aim of this study was to assess theprevalence of Oral hygiene (plaque and calculus) and gingivitis in relation to age, gender and nutritional status.Materials and methods: The sample included (444) kindergarten children at age of (4 and 5 years old) males andfemales from urban areas in Al-Ramadi city. The assessment of nutritional status was performed using anthropometricmeasurements (Waterlow's indicator). Plaque index of Silness and Loe (1964) used for plaque assessment, gingivalindex of Loe and Silness (1963) was used for recording gingival health condition. Ramfjord index teeth (1959) wereapplied to assess oral cleanliness and gingival condition.Results: The mean value of plaque, Gingival and Calculus indices were found (1.64±0.02, 0.38±0.02, 0.0004±0.0002respectively). Plaque index and gingival index were reported to be higher among malnourished children than wellnourished described by Waterlow´s indicator, with statistically highly significant differences. No significant differencewas recorded in calculus index between the malnourished and well nourished children.Conclusions: There was a direct relationship between periodontal condition and malnutrition