Election systems and counting votes and their impact on democratic systems An analytical study of the theoretical and practical application of text (Iraq model)


The franchise systems the station the most important in the democratic process of the state and its engine statute which gives dynamic and has a formidable force in the movement of human societies towards the ballot boxes, and without it lacks both the content and insoluble practice and knows the election as a legal means which can whereby people granted powers to deputies for the purpose of participating in the moderated affairs while franchise systems with the task of determining the winners and the distribution of parliamentary seats between them and there are hundreds of electoral systems that are being used now and in the light of many and the results vary so-called standard division between these types of systems is the type of relationship between the sound and the parliamentary seat and the level of votes lost any classified franchise systems on the basis of the standard calculation of the number of votes needed to win the candidate one of the parliamentary seats to several electoral systems which follow the means of simple mathematical to determine the winners, as in the majority system (scrutimagoritaire) the election system Alternative Alternative Vote, the candidate is required to win winning an absolute majority (50 +1) and other systems distributed representation system semi- proportional and includes several distributed systems and is a member of the States used the system last gain of .0.1 of all countries of the world, a very small percentage which shows a marginal system towards the wishes of the people, while the systems of proportional representation on the principle that for every party to a number of seats proportional to the number of votes obtained by the party in the elections and has pictures as winners are determined mathematically in many electoral systems, as in the election system, preferential appoints mathematically voters / (1 + seats) (votes) / n = +1, the representation relative approximate the distribution of parliamentary seats in a way the rest strongest and average the strongest and used 68 countries today system simple majority Aonzam first winner no less than one-third of the world a little while using a proportional representation system 66 countries in the world make up the gain of 31% of the countries in the world and 23% of the world's population while the system goes St Lego amended to split the valid votes for each list got Alihaaly individual numbers (9,7,5,3 ... etc) ie the number of constituency seats and Dhunt under way to divide the votes of the odd and even numbers from (1, 2.3, 4.5, etc. (while moving the bulk of the world today for the use of franchise systems and electronic define the mechanisms of counting by computers central resort other countries to adopt legislation particular electoral system Oomsaad for the distribution of parliamentary seats among the candidates, as in the quota system in Iraq and the law of the cube (cube law) in Britain and treated mathematically b 3_ (A) p / 3_ (B) y = output represents the ratio of the list of the seats contested in that constituency and the difference error between the law of cubic and the actual outcome and the level of the votes lost very little Akadlayotr in the election results.