Effect of salt stress on callus growth of two sugarcane cultivars saccharum officinarum cultured in vitro


A study was conducted at Biotechnology lab. belong to private sector in Basra province. The objective was to induce callus from two sugarcane cultivars which were ; Co 331 and Cp-72-2086. Apical buds from plants that were free of diseases and insects were used as a source of explants. Two methods were used for surface sterilization , the first was by commercial bleach ( 20 % v/v ) and the second method was by ethanol ( 70 % ) plus commercial bleach ( 20 % ). 2,4 –D were used at ( 0 , 1.5 , 3 , 4.5 ) mg/L to study their effect on callus initiation and induction. The suitable 2,4 –D concentration then used to grow callus under different concentration of Nacl ( 0 , 30 , 60 , 90 , 120 , 150 ) mM. Results showed that the best sterilization method was by ethanol for ten minutes then commercial bleach ( 20 % ) which gave lowest percent of contamination ( 13 % and 7 % ) for both cultivars respectively. Results also showed all 2,4 – D concentration gave rise to callus but best concentration was 3 mg/L which gave higher quantity of callus whereas ; control treatment caused growth of apical bud with no callus formation. All sodium chloride treatments effected on callus fresh weight. The highest callus fresh weight was on control treatment and then it decreased as sodium chloride concentration increased for both cultivars on culture on salt culture medium.