Effect of Thyroid Hormones and Trace Elements (Zn, Mg) on Obesity

Abstract

Background: Obesity is characterized by abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that is the result of a chronic imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones have profound effect on many physiological processes, such as development, growth in children and metabolism. Thyroid hormones stimulate diverse metabolic activates in most tissues, leading to an increase in basal metabolic rate. Trace elements are essential nutrients with regulatory, immunologic, and antioxidant functions resulting from their action as essential components or cofactors of enzymes throughout metabolism.Methods: In this study conducted on 176 individuals in the age group from (20-55) years, from Tikrit and Kirkuk Governorates. Blood samples were divided into three groups according to BMI: Group One: Control group (Normal Weight): 66 individual BMI (18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2). Group Two: Overweight group: 50 individual BMI (25.0 – 29.9 kg/m2).Group Three: Obese group: 60 individual BMI (≥ 30 kg/m2).Results: The results showed a high significant increase (p<0.0001) in the BMI level in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group. The results showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in (T3 and T4) hormones levels in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group. While the results showed a high significant increase (p<0.0001) in the TSH levels in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group, the results showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) in the Zn concentration in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group, the results showed a high significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the Mg concentration in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group. There is a high significant increase in the (cholesterol, TG, VLDL-c and LDL-c) levels in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group (p<0.0001), while the results showed a high significant decrease (p<0.0001) in the HDL-c level in obese and overweight groups comparison with normal weight group. The results showed that there was a significant positive correlation between T3 and T4.While there was a significant negative correlation between T3 and LDL. There was a positive correlation between T4 and HDL. Whereas the there was a significant negative correlation between T4 and LDL. There was a significant positive correlation between TSH with Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL and VLDL. There was a significant negative correlation between TSH with HDL, and Mg. Conclusions: The results of (thyroid hormones and lipid profile) indicated highly associated with trace elements (Zn, Mg) levels and these correlations may be caused a risk of the obesity.