A study to compare the cleaning efficiency of different irrigation systems for macro debris removal in instrumented canals (An in vitro study)


Background: Irrigation of the canal system permits removal of residual tissue in the canal anatomy that cannot bereached by instrumentation of the main canals so the aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficiencyof conventional irrigation system, endoactivator sonic irrigation system,P5 Newtron Satelec passive ultrasonicirrigation and Endovac irrigation system in removing of dentin debris at three levels of root canals and to comparethe percentage of dentin debris among the three levels for each irrigation system.Materials and methods: Forty extracted premolars with approximately straight single root canals were randomlydistributed into 4 tested groups of 10 teeth each. All canals were prepared with Protaper Universal hand files to size#F4, and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCI 1 ml between files and 5ml for 60 seconds as a final irrigant by different irrigationdevices; group one, by using conventional system; group two, by using Endoactivator sonic irrigation system, groupthree, by using Satelec Passive Ultrasonic irrigation and group four by using the Endovac system. After the finalirrigation, the roots were split longitudinally and photographed with a digital microscope. The roots were magnifiedto 100X; a percentage of debris was calculated for the apical 0-3, middle 3-6 and coronal 6-9 mm. The debris scorewas calculated as a percentage of the total area of the canal that contained debris as determined by pixels inAdobe PhotoshopCS5. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and LSD at 5% significant level.Results: when comparing the debris remaining, the Endovac, Endoactivator and Satelec groups showed significantlyless debris than the conventional group at all three levels (p < 0.01). The Endovac group showed significantly lessdebris than the Endoactivator group at middle and coronal levels while no significant difference found between theEndovac system and Endoactivator system at apical level. The apical 0-3 mm showed significantly more debris thanboth the middle and coronal level for all groups.Conclusion: The EndoVac system showed a higher cleaning capacity of the canal at all levels, followed by theprotocols that used Endoactivator sonic irrigation system. The conventional irrigation system with maxi-i-probeneedles showed inferior results. The apical three millimeters showed a greater amount of debris than the 3-9millimetres from the working length, regardless of the irrigation device used