Kant’s Ethical Republic


Abstract Immanuel Kant ( 1724-1804 ) was one of the most important modern philosophers and the most famous thinkers who wrote on enlightenment and philosophy of ethics , which he employed in his political philosophy , especially concerning state . In this research , we attempt to explain the relation between the philosophy of ethics and the philosophy of politics , and employing ethics in constructing state according to his various writings . Kant’s claim to found an ethical republic was an extension to the notion of founding utopias by some former philosophers such as Plato and Al-Farabi , which were ideal . That Kant agreed with them in the general framework of the ethical state that provides individuals with happiness , but he differed from them in many issues because of the difference in time , place and the requirements of life in addition to development of human thought . The research is divided into three sections . In the first one “ Enlightenment and the relation between ethics and politics ” , we show Kant’s opinion on enlightenment which was the base of his intellectual system , on which he construct most of his conceptions on ethics , politics and the relation between them in the framework of political philosophy . In addition , the relation between the individuals and society and between themselves . In second section “ Founding ethical republic ( state ) ” , we treat with Kant’s concept on the rise of state in the light of his vision to human nature and state of nature and his theory of social contact which is different from those of the other former philosophers . Also , we explain the specifications of state which should be In third section “ Civil society and its basic aspects ” , we treat with the concept of civil society according to Kant , and the purpose behind it . We also explain the basic aspects of civil society such as constitution , its role in the life of the individual , citizenship and the characteristics the citizens should have to realize ethical republic .