Study algae and fungi interaction in some artificial open sand mine ponds in Kalak sub district- Duhok, Iraq


Phycology, mycology and physicochemical parameters of some artificial open sand mine ponds in Kalak sub district-Duhok- Iraq were investigated, for a period of six months from July to December-2015. Water samples were collected monthly basis and analyzed for measuring of water temperature, turbidity, pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, orthophosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Concerning algal communities, the results showed that the sixty taxa were identified in samples collected during the study period. They belong to classes Cyanophyceae (18 taxa) with percentage composition of 30%, Chlorophyceae (20 taxa) with percentage composition of 33.3%, Euglenophyceae (2 taxa) with percentage composition of 3.4%and Bacillariophyceae (20 taxa) with percentage composition of 33.3%.According to Shannon-Weiner index, species diversity varied from (2.053to 3.895bits/ind), in pond 3 and in July had the highest diversity were recorded. Concerning to Jaccard similarity index, the highest percentage of similarity to algal community observed between site2 and site 4 reached to 32%. The diatoms were the most noticeable algae in all ponds which represented by Cyclotella, Navicula, Syndra and Cymbella with respect to the frequency of occurrence and number of individuals in all ponds. The diatoms showed their best growths through this study. The dominant of Chlorophyta and Cyanophyta followed by diatoms. The dominate species among non-diatoms were, Oscillatoria, Pedistrum, Oedogonium, Cladophoraand Cosmarium. Out of 23 fungal species belongs to 17 fungal genera were isolated. Trichoderma sp. was most frequent species, Aspergillus spp. followed by Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp.