The effect of climate temperature and daily water intake on the diversity of uropathogens causing urinary tract infections in adult hospital patients

Abstract

Background: The most frequent bacterium causing urinary tract infection is Escherichia coli followed by Staphylococcus saprophytic. These infections are more prevalent among pregnant women, particularly in summer, due to dehydration and insufficient uptake of drinking water.Objective: To assess the effect of climate temperature on diversity of uropathogens causing UTIs, and investigate whether infection increases during specific months.Patients and Methods: Seven hundred forty one patients aged 20 years or above in General Zakho Hospital was investigated for urinary tract infection status from January to December 2015, and the daily drinking water uptake was assessed. The monthly climate temperatures were analyzed. Urine samples were collected using mid -stream method, and the samples were cultured to isolate uropathogens identified by biochemical tests.Results: The results indicate that 494 (66.66%) out of 741 patients were infected with UTIs, with seasonal trends of a peak plateau from June to July and a sharp decline after September. The percentage of UTI was 71% among patients who drank less than 2 liters of water per day, and 60% for other infections. Pregnant women had significantly higher prevalence of uropathogens due to the physiological changes during pregnancy. E.coli was the most common isolated pathogen (51.7%) in male and female patients.Conclusion: The results support evidence suggesting that dehydration due to low water intake, especially in summer, leads to low urine output, which increases the occurrence of urinary tract infection.