FACIES ANALYSIS AND NEW DISCOVERY OF A MASTODONT FROM INJANA FORMATION (LATE MIOCENE) NEAR THARTHAR LAKE- MIDDLE OF IRAQ

Abstract

The study area comprises Injana Formation (Late Miocene), exposed on the hills nearby of Tharthar Lake and about 120 km north of Baghdad City. This study depends on sedimentologic and facies analysis to recognize paleoenvironment and recognize the kinds of vertebrate bone fossils during Late Miocene. Sedimentologic and Facies analysis showed many sedimentary facies: facies (Se) of scoured erosional surface, facies of (Sp) cross- bedded sandstones, facies (Fs) of fine sandstone facies, facies of (Fc) claystone, and facies of (C) calcareous clay. Facies analysis referred to the sub environments which are: point bar, over bank and floodplain in addition to fining upward cycles of deposition, which refers to meandering fluvial depositional environment. Large vertebrate bone fossils were collected from the study area; the studied bone fossils probably are related to Proboscidea, Mastodont of Hemrin, which is named (Hemrin Mastodont). The current study considered the studied bone fossil as a new discovery of Proboscidea, Mastodont, which can be named (Tharthar Mastodont) after the name of the collection site of Tharthar Lake, from Injana Formation (Late Miocene), middle of Iraq. It was living near meandering fluvial environment which provided also plant diversity for herbivores.