Iraqi state between national orientation and loyalty Britain 1958 -1921

Abstract

Has contributed to the Iraqis who put the foundations first of the Iraqi state to state, are active in Arab societies, which was formed in the late Ottoman period, which called for obtaining the Arabs' legitimate rights, and also contributed and efficiency itself and possibly more in the Great Arab Revolt that Kindle triggered by Sharif Hussein bin Ali June 10, 1916. He was at the forefront of working in the Arab Movement Yassin al-Hashemi, Nuri al-Said, Jafar and beautiful military artillery and Ali Ayoubi quality and others. Suffice it to point out that most of the members of the Assembly of the Covenant, which is the only Assembly, which was a military nature, were Iraqis who formed elements of the military leadership of the Arab revolution like Jafar military and Nuri and artillery beautiful. (1)
If we talked about King Faisal I, which is the most prominent of the founders of the modern Iraqi state. Its role in the planning of the Arab revolution and its leadership was great, he is the commander of the northern army who liberated the Hijaz and shares in the liberation of the Levant and entered Damascus in early October 1918. It was more than the sons of Sherif Hussein enthusiasm to declare the revolution. And executions carried out by Jamal Pasha (incest) in 1915 and 1916 were the key factor that spurred on a quest to accelerate the announcement of the Revolution (2).
The main objective of the revolution the establishment of an independent Arab state in the Arab Mashreq, led by Sharif Hussein, painted borders Under the Sharif Hussein correspondence with Sir Henry McMahon McMahon, the British adopted after the federal ladle in their policy racism calling for the تتريك of the non-Turkish nationalities in the Ottoman Empire.modern Iraq and who have become then the most prominent policymakers there until 1958, has imbibed the principles of nationalism and fought in leadership positions in the army of the Arab Revolution, to what extent was a reflection of the national sentiment on the policy of the State of Iraq during the royal era (1921 - 1985). This what Sntibah through this search.
phase of the British Mandate until 1932:
before heading king of Iraq gave Prince Faisal a number of speeches and words on several occasions in one of them stressed that the aim of the Declaration of the Arab Revolt was not for the throne here or there. It came in a speech (I did not I did not have my father and one of my family members an act of the Renaissance and them مطمع in something). I swear to his honor and his ancestral soil, that he did not think to come to Iraq to Iraq, if not the urgency of his friends and the Iraqi people (4). This means that he wanted to emphasize that the national impulse, alone was behind the announcement of the Arab revolution. In a sermon Coronation (23 August 1921) pay attention Iraqis again to the Arab revolution and its leader, Sharif Hussein, who ((raising the banner of the Arabs is bound to the Allies and got the Arabs are not very his only free them and support their independence nationalist who were ينشدونه centuries ago)) (5).
And so it was self-evident in national speeches and conversations Faisal. But he soon found himself and the rest of the politicians who have worked with him in the Arab revolution, drowned in the sea and a wide range of internal problems that accompanied external threats from Turkey, which demanded Mosul and Iran, which raised between now and then the problems of border still so present, as well as attacks by the Muslim Brotherhood from the southern border the instigation of the Emirate of Najd. And British control of assignment made Iraqi politicians in constant conflict with the authorities of the British Mandate for true independence, which revolted for him against the Turks of the sons of their religion, the cable British Iraq treaty was virtually the mirror image of the Mandate, in the words of Iraqi senior Mr. Abdul-Razzaq al-Hassani (6).
The conflict with the Mandate authorities bitter and harsh even Prime Minister Abdul Mohsen al-Sadoun preferred suicide to be charged with treason and slavery to the British, as stated in his will (7).
that the conflict with Britain made many Iraqi governments move away relatively More attention to issues of nationalism, and perhaps also in the hope of not signal Britain, which was seen in any direction nationalist threat to their interests Remarkably, the students who demonstrated in protest against the visit Zionist Alfred Mond A.Mond in February 1928 during the Ministry Abdul Mohsen al-Sadoun second exposed various sanctions. The expulsion of 18 students expelled for life, and the Criminal Court sentenced a number of other demonstrators different penalties. And others were forced to travel outside Iraq to complete his studies and personal whom National beautiful Hussein (8). He did not hesitate and Swedish knowledge Tawfiq Minister students threatened to shoot them if they demonstrated again (9). And known that Sweden was one of the members of the First Arab Conference, which was held in the French capital Paris in 1913 and called for granting the Arabs their legitimate rights (10), but now threatens to kill those who oppose visit one of those who call for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine at the expense of the legitimate rights of the Arabs.
and there is nothing to suggest that one of those who worked in the ranks of the Arab Movement objected to the measures taken by the Ministry of Sadoun, but that it happened with the consent of King Faisal I (11), the man who in the Great Arab Revolt, the first revolution you on behalf of the Arabs in the modern era. And it was not strange that the government take similar action against the demonstrators who came out in support of the Palestinian Buraq revolution in 1929. The government closed Al Nahda and home because they attacked the measures taken by the government against the demonstrators (12).
and it seems the King Faisal and quite a few poles of Iraqi politics at the time were not aware of the Zionist danger. And known to Faisal met Zionist leader Chaim Weizmann chim waizman in 1919 and wrote to his father that Weizmann had assured him that the Jews do not think in the establishment of any kind of government in Palestine. And that cooperation between Arabs and Jews is necessary because the Jews will be working on the ages of Palestine (13). On the other hand, the king was trying to not to raise Britain and perhaps مجاملتها in his position is firm on the Palestinian issue, so he ignored the messages by the leadership of the Palestinian national movement in 1930 on the Palestinian issue, and developments (14) at a time when the national feeling burning among the Iraqi people as is evident from the demonstrations of support for the Palestinian cause. As the Iraqi youth has already been established in 1922 to celebrate the festival of the Arab revolution, called for it to be considered as the date of announcement of the Arab Revolt (10 June), an official holiday. And the king reviewing military sectors and to send a telegram to his father in this regard (15). On according to this last fact, he could not the Iraqi government, as well as the king, ignoring the national feeling with the Iraqi people in absolute terms, and especially that the poles of the system of government men Arabic , but dust, their sense of national or nationalist retracted their principles and possibly abandoned, after that Britain Ogrguethm in internal problems, or satisfy her. Iraq has sympathy with the national aspirations of the Syrian. Perhaps the reason for this - for the royal family - back to the Hashemite family's ambition to restore the throne, King Faisal, who lost in 1920 following a battle Maysaloon. Has increased this ambition unit after it lost family throne first in the Hijaz in 1929 after he was forced Al Saud, King Ali Bin Al Hussein, brother of King Faisal I to leave the Hijaz (16) settled in Iraq in the hope of the throne of alternative and Syria was hope most to achieve this dream that and then inherited from his father, Prince Abdul Ilah bin on as mentioned will come.
The French have realized this fact early on until they were at the forefront of opposition to the inauguration of Faisal king of Iraq and think about his life as a British documents indicate (17). Valttalaa to the independence of Syria did not Imlah purely national sentiment, but that was united with Hashemi seek to extend his influence over the Levant and state claims that Britain promised independence under correspondence Hussain - McMahon as our ancestors. This figured Syrian Revolution in 1925 to support the Iraqi government, but in secret. Iraq also became a refuge for Syrian rebels (18).
and a confirmation of the fact that fear in the expression of national sentiment or national approach to the Iraqi government, the ministerial curricula that nearly devoid of reference to, or come timidly signal it seems, and the only reference that are worth mentioning in this aspect came Platform and Department of military Jafar (uniformed commander of the Army of the Arab Revolt North) in 1923 as the text of paragraph (9) ((National establishing links between Iraq and other Arab countries)). But this national trend quickly faded when the military form of the second of his ministry in 1926, as stated in paragraph (2) of the curriculum ((and establish links with neighboring countries in particular, including on the basis of mutual respect and affection)) (20). Leave out Iran and Syria and Transjordan, Turkey and find ... Etc.. We also noted that the reference to strengthening links with neighboring countries came after the reference to ((support loyalty and friendship between the two peoples)) Iraqi and British, as set out in paragraph (6), while the reference to links with neighboring countries and contained in paragraph (9) as noted above. It is interesting to consider that we did not find any reference to the Palestinian cause in any curriculum of courses Ministries during the British Mandate, despite the presence of several indicators on the continuation of Jewish immigration to Palestine and the worsening of the Zionist danger.
Did not witness the stage Mandate appearance draws national grandfather and establish links with Arab countries, be a step to build a unified state, which was held Hashemite family hopes to build led by Sharif Hussein bin Ali, if we take into consideration that Sharif Hussein was forced to leave the Hijaz and stability in exile on the island of Cyprus, after being let down British and enabled Al Saud of undermining Saudi spark which set off the Arab revolution that enabled Britain and the Allies generally achieve quick victories in the Levant (21).
I've removed the Kingdom of Hijaz from the political map of the region, and Sharif Hussein anguish died in exile after the British shake their hands with him, and ignored a lot of demands. And tells his son, the younger Prince Zeid, said his father had one day be unsheathed dagger and puts it in front of Governor of the island the British, saying ((I fought this with you, and I thought that I Sakabl this denial. Was rulers slob but the push dagger by the hand, saying, no longerabsorbed Sharif Hussein studied deeply. And King Faisal was the most accommodating for the lesson, and in particular that he had suffered a betrayal of the British like his father, on leaving the British faced his fate inevitable while I crawled French troops led by General Gouraud GOURAUD to fall Arab government in Damascus in 1920 and destroys the kingdom Faisal four months after its creation. This may be a lesson one of the most important reasons that prompted Britain to support the nomination of Faisal king of Iraq, in order to take into account any departure from the line that you draw Britain, means that will face the same fate that faced in Syria., And the British were intimating him to do so as little Abdul Razzaq al-Hasani (23). It may be the lesson the harsh received Faisal at the Battle of Maysaloun is the one who make it addresses the Iraqis before his coronation less than a month, saying ((but I hope one of the nation not to rush and not wander. Wan Hacetha nationalism and blood Arab active not Aforan spree urgent)) (24 ) In other words, must rein in national sentiment extent permitted by Britain. Faisal found on some occasions the opportunity to express that feeling. He said a decade after the Treaty of Iraq - the British in 1930 ((This treaty last step for the Liberation of Iraq, and the first step to liberate the Arab countries)) (25) and possibly before the British remark national not they are well aware also aware Faisal said Treaty in 1930 did not liberate Iraq, It provided for the establishment of military bases بريطانيتين in Iraq and handcuffed Iraq limitations too harsh (26) and on another occasion by Faisal about his feelings nationalism when he talked about the idea of ​​unity between Iraq and Syria, saying ((it was good to be realized this unit to understand the West spirit of civilization Arab and understanding of the world mentality Germans after their unit)) (27) and already this statement practical step in this direction in an attempt to draw closer from some Arab countries, such as we find and Hijaz, which governs the opponents Al Saud, as well as Yemen and the Emirate of Transjordan, which is governed by a sister Prince Abdullah ibn al-Hasan. At that wrote Mr. Abdul Razzaq al-Hassani ((whistled ideas some Arab politicians in the country after the end of the First World War ... to create Arab unity and Arab diaspora gathered unite their word ... and the ministry formed Saidia first King Faisal expressed his desire to makes in the development of the cornerstone of what politicians are thinking)). Vtalv delegation headed by Nuri al-Said left Baghdad on 25 March 1931 he visited Jordan, Yemen and Saudi Hijazi - Najdi, has emerged from the visit to hold three treaties with the three countries, promised positive steps - compared Bzervha - towards the Arab understanding. And that the most positive aspect of this step, the King Faisal put differences with the Saud family aside, and deal with the de facto realistically
As for the contents of those treaties, they provided for the cooperation and set up links ((on the basis of close cooperation and friendliness cores)) with Jordan (Article II). As with the Kingdom of Hijaz - Najdi, came in the first article ((prevails between the Kingdom of Iraq and between the Kingdom of Hijaz - Najdi and accessories, lasting peace and friendship and close can not be violated, and undertakes teams The High that exert their utmost to maintain them, and solve the spirit of peace and friendship of all disputes and differences that arise among them)). The treaty with Yemen did not contain only three brief articles did not exceed six lines the most important thing the second article, which stipulates ((lasting peace prevails and a close friendship between the two kingdoms Contracting)) (28).
who reads these texts carefully treaties can not say that there is a real national trend. Such treaties, which included material about friendship, good-neighborliness and cooperation in customs affairs and transmission of the sons of the tribes in the border areas, often held حبين the countries are not linked with each national or religious links. And remains for us not to hold decision-makers no energy to them is, the internal situation, Arab and international at the time were not allow any step more broadly or deeply entrenched toward Arab unity, or even close to Arabic real be the basis for the unity of Arab, taking into consideration that Britain was continuing in their efforts to establish (a national homeland for the Jews) in Palestine. And known to British influence was the most powerful in Iraq, the Levant and the world. And most importantly, that there are those who view with suspicion and doubt to this step. Has attacked independent newspaper, and confirmed that Britain want Iraqis alliance with Jordan and Syria to build oil pipelines. And William Martin, the newspaper Journal De Geneve suggested that the it. And has not ruled out (independence) to be the idea of ​​the inauguration of Prince Ali Bin Al Hussein on the throne of Syria came for this purpose, because Britain regrets the loss of Syria from her hand (29).
The newspaper confirmed that Iraq is independent and state has no right to call for NATO, and that the right of Saudi Arabia and Yemen as two independent courses. (30) It is important to mention that the interests of Britain may be forced by to Futura some forms of Arab rapprochement or Arab unity. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia was until the first quarter of the twentieth century three political entities (Hijaz and Najd and Hail) make Al Saud single entity by force of arms. Did not put Britain any obstacles generally Al Saud, but they supported the Al Saud in خطوتهم that they found them better than to serve and defend its interests in the region, and help them to achieve one of the most important objectives in the region is to establish (homeland) for the Jews in Palestine. And we refer here to what the British politician known as Winston Churchill Winston Chrchill Zionist leader Weizmann)) I would like to see Ibn Saud has become a master of the Middle East - Chairman of the Presidents - the condition being that the settlement with you I would like to see Uibn Saud lord of the middle east , the boss of the bosses - provide he settles with you (32). This is also confirmed by a document of the British Ministry of War. (33)