Cytological Findings in Cervical Smear in Al-Anbar Governorate

Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Cervical cancer is the 3rd most common cancer in women globally. There is variation in incidence & mortality between developing & developed countries is attributed to the national screening programs in the developed countries to detect cervical changes in addition to human papilloma virus vaccination. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is well known as a direct cause of cervical cancer.OBJECTIVE:This study designed to detect the percentage of cervical changes in Al-Anbar governorate.Study design: A cross-sectional study for detection of abnormal cervical smears.Study setting: Private clinic of gynecology & obstetric governorate & private laboratory of histopathology & cytology in al-Anbar.PATIENTS AND METHODS:A prospective study was carried out from January 2012 - July 2014, 450 patients were included in this study diagnosed at private laboratory in Al-Anbar govrnorate. Bethesda system was used to assess these Pap smears. Patients were analyzed for clinical data with special focusing on the age and the chief complaint.Pap smears were prepared from patients presenting with complaints like abnormal vaginal discharge, post-coital bleeding, irregular vaginal bleeding and dyspareunia.RESULTS :Among total of 450 patients , commonest age group at time of presentation was between 40-49 years (172 pateints). Most of the patients were presented with vaginal discharge include one hundred eighty eight patients (188) (41.8%). Others were presented with vaginal discharge include one hundred eighty eight patients (188) (41.8%) , others presented with vaginal bleeding, post coital bleeding & dyspareunia . The results of cervical smears were classified into non specific inflammation ( 150 cases) ( 33.3 %) , and abnormal pap smear results ( 300 cases). The results of abnormal pap smear include ASC-US (40 cases) (8.9 %) , LSIL (99 cases) (22 %) , HSIL (45 cases) (10%) , squamous cell carcinoma (25 cases) (5.5%) , AGC (21 cases), adenocarcinoma ( 0 case) & koliocytosis (70 cases) (15.6 % ).CONCLUSION:Regular cervical Pap smear is highly advisable to recognize premalignant cervical changes in sexually active female. HPV play a major role in development of cervical cancer. Cervical cytology is a simple, safe and effective test to detect premalignant and malignant lesions of cervix at an early stage, so help the clinicians in management of the patients.