Early Outcome of Surgical Intervention of Esophageal Atresia and Tracheo‑esophageal Fistula in Erbil Pediatric Surgical Center


Background: Esophageal atresia (EA) and treacheo-esophageal fistula occur in 1 out of every 3500 live births. Children born with EA have ahigher incidence of prematurity than the general population EA. The treatment of EA and tracheo-esophageal fistula, although still a challenge,represents one of the true successes of newborn surgery. Objective: The aim of this study cases with EA and/or tracheo-esophageal fistula inRapareen pediatric surgery center, Erbil, Iraq, regarding management, and early outcome. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three neonates wereenrolled in this study from October 2011 to September 2015. Preoperative investigations included chest X-ray, ultrasound of the abdomen,and echocardiography. All patients were resuscitated before surgical intervention. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 wasused for data analysis. Results: Out of 53 cases, 21 survived and 32 died. Thirty patients were male and 23 were female (male-to-female ratio1.3:1). Twelve were premature and 41 term babies. The most common type was EA and distal fistula in 47 cases, pure atresia in 5 cases, andEA with both distal and proximal fistula in one case. Presenting features were excessive salivation in all cases, failure to pass nasogastric tubein 98.1%, cyanosis in 69.8%, and chocking in 37.7%. Prenatal history of polyhydramnios was present in 67.9%. Eighteen cases had associatedanomalies, most of them were cardiac. Conclusion: EA with distal tracheo-esophageal fistula is the most common type of anomaly. Earlydiagnosis, weight, maturity, and associated anomalies are the most important factors that affect the outcome. Postoperative respiratory care isnecessary, especially for those who have a preoperative chest infection.