The policy of the Ottoman Empire towards the tribes in Ayyal al - Sham 1516-1566


Ottoman Empire, after their full control of Bilad Al-Sham state, started to lobby and subject different difficult to control nomadic tribes live in this area. Therefore, Ottoman Empire used different techniques to deal with these tribes to ensure their loyalty and subjection. One of these techniques was dealing with tribes moderately in the case of that they found this technique useful. Otherwise, they used military force to control tribes that showed out-of-control behavior. Notwithstanding, Ottoman authorities in Al-Sham state have faced insurgency from these tribes which affected the economy of Ottoman Empire negatively. This is because the fact that most of these tribes were live around the route that was used by commercial caravans or for Hajj purpose. This, in turn, cost the Ottoman Empire a lot of money since certain amount of money was paid either to the tribal sheikhs to ensure their loyalty and non-aggression or to the soldiers for protecting users of this commercial route. Consequently, Ottoman authority have had many changes in the administrative system between time to time to secure their authority and provide stability and security. This was conducted by development of new states such as Aleppo state. In addition, other states were also developed later on in the last quarter of the sixteenth century. The development of these states is beyond the scope of this paper.