Background and objectives Varicocele is a dilatation and tortuousity of pampiniform plexus. It is a very common condition present in 15% of the general male population and 40% of men evaluated for primary infertility and 80% of men with secondary infertility. A varicocele develops because of defective valves that normally allow blood to flow away from the testicle toward the abdomen. The improvement of seminal parameters and rate of pregnancy after varicocele correction had been reported by several investigators in clinical series. The aim of this study is to evaluate the sperm motility, concentration, morphology and pregnancy rate post-varicocelectomy.Methods A retrospective study conducted on 160 male patients who underwent surgery for correction of varicocele for the period between January 2005 to January 2011. All the included patients had primary infertility. Pre and post operative evaluation was held byfrequent seminal fluid analysis. The place of the study was Azadi teaching hospital.Results The improvement in the sperm concentration observed in 80 patients (50%) at 3months, 112 patients (70%) at 6 months, and 128 patients (80%) at 12 months. The sperm motility were improved in 64 patients (40%) at 3 months , 80 patients (50%) at 6 months and 112 patient (70%) at the 12 months .While the improvement in the sperm morphology was seen in 56 patients (35%) at 3 months , 80 patients (50%) at 6 months and 104 patients (65%) at the 12 months. Accordingly the best results obtained after 12 months and the greatest changes were in the sperm concentrations (80%) followed by motility (70%) and morphology(65%). On the other hand the pregnancy rate was 8.1% at 3 months, 21.8% at 6 months and 30% after 12 months.Conclusions We conclude that the palpable varicocele had a bad effect on the sperm parameters , the repair of varicocele improved these parameters, and in the same time it improves the rate of spontaneous pregnancy but not to the same extend as the improvementsin the sperm parameters.