Vitamin D Supplementation in the First Trimester of Pregnancy as an Intervention to Protect against Adverse Gestational Outcomes in the Third Trimester

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D deficiency (VDD) is thought to be common among pregnant women and is a widespread public health problem.Objective: The aim of this study was to know whether the correction of VDD by Vitamin D supplementation given to pregnant women in thefirst trimester of pregnancy can prevent the development of complications such as preeclampsia (PE), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM),and small for gestational age (SGA) in the third trimester or not, in a sample of pregnant women. Materials and Methods: The study wasan experimental design. It was carried out between December 2016 and October 2018. A total 200 healthy pregnant women were included.They were chosen randomly in the first trimester of pregnancy from the Outpatient Clinic in Duhok Governorate of Kurdistan Region, Iraq. Aknowledge questionnaire was used to collect information. Blood samples were taken and analyzed for the determination of 25 hydroxyvitaminD (25[OH] D). We did routine investigations which done for every pregnant woman as a part of antenatal care in the form of complete bloodcount, general urine examination, random blood sugar, and ultrasound. Results: Mean serum 25[OH] D concentration before supplementationwas 8.41 ± 2.48 and after supplementation was 30.96 ± 9.60. There was a reduction in the risk of GDM and SGA but no change in the risk of PE.Conclusion: Supplementation of Vitamin D to pregnant women with VDD in the first trimester may lower the risk of GDM and SGA, but its effectsin the prevention of PE need further evaluation. All patients had response to the Vitamin D supplement within 8–10 weeks regardless the outcomes