Evaluation of Rotation, Tipping and Extrusion During Canine Retraction by Sliding Mechanics Using Different Arch Wires


Aims: To evaluate the amount of rotation, tipping and extrusion using different wires and to Estimate the difference in the amount of tipping, rotation and extrusion between Stainless steel and Teflon ligature in different wires. Materials and Methods: The standardizing criteria were all Typodont teeth situated in well–aligned, covered and immobilized by the acrylic bite except canine; The available space for canine sliding was (14 mm) measured by digital vernia. Elastic chain exerting 180 gm of force on canine measured carefully by tension gauge. In both vertical and horizontal direction a photographs that were taken for Typodont using digital camera. The angle between bite plane extension bar and Canine extension bar were (90o) measured by protractor directly on the photograph. Preformed band with its attachments, ready made stainless steel, composite coated and TMA arch wires all were (0.018×0.025) with the use of stainless steel and Teflon ligature, Standard titanium spring 11 mm length, Typodont components, within six types of connection the two types of ligation material had been applied to the three different wires then the 1st premolar space tend to be closed by distal canine displacement then the resultant rotation, tipping and extrusion were measured. Statistical Descriptive analysis: One–way and, Two–ways Analysis of Variance were done to detect the variability between methods and which is the best. Results: Three important results showed in the study: First, canine sliding over the composite coated arch wire with the use of stainless steel ligature gave rise to significant decrease in rotation, tipping and extrusion when compared with other methods. Second, stainless steel ligature when compared with Teflon ligature of the same corresponding method gave rise to a significant decrease in the degree of rotation tipping and extrusion. Third, Composite coated arch wires showed lowest degree of rotation then followed by TMA arch wires ordinarily this is due to their rough surface. The largest rotation seen in the stainless steel arch wire this is due to its smooth surface texture, and the same thing for the tipping of the composite coated wires that gave rise to the lowest degree of tipping followed by the stainless steel wires, these result possibly due to their stiffness then higher tipping seen at TMA wires ordinarily a result of their flexibility this sequence were the same for both types of ligations. Conclusions: Best method of space closure is the use of either composite coated arch wire or stainless steel arch wire with stainless steel ligature that give us highest resistance to tipping, lowest extrusion and relatively little rotation when compared with other methods.