Platelet parameters: Can they serve as biomarkers of glycemic control or development of complications in evaluation of type 2 diabetes mellitus?

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Platelet function plays a crucial pathophysiological role in the development ofatherothrombosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Platelet count (PC) and meanplatelet volume (MPV) are simple, effective, and cheap tests that may be used to predict angiopathyin type 2 DM.OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to analyze various platelet parameters including PC,plateletcrit (total mass of platelets) (PCT), and mean platelet indices that are MPV, platelet distributionwidth (PDW), and platelet‑large cell ratio (PLCR) in the type 2 DM patients, to compare variousplatelet indices between DM patients (with and without complications) and controls.MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a cross‑sectional study conducted over a period of 3 months.Complete blood count along with blood glucose and HbA1c was estimated. The study populationwas divided into three groups: Group 1: Normal controls (n = 30); Group 2: DM patients withoutcomplications (n = 30); and Group 3: DM patients with complications (n = 30). Based on HbA1clevels among the diabetic patients, the diabetic groups were also classified as DM with HbA1c <7%and DM with HbA1c >7%.RESULTS: All the platelet parameters were found to be higher among DM with complication ascompared to DM without complication, and this was found to be statistically significant. Among theplatelet parameters, MPV, PCT, and PDW were found to be higher among DM with HbA1c >7% ascompared to DM with HbA1c <7%, and this was found to be statistically significant while there wasno significant differences in PC and PLCR between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Monitoring of DM to prevent the occurrence of vascular complications is the needof the hour. The results of the study suggest a role of various platelet indices as a simple andcost‑effective tool to monitor the progression and control of DM.