Assessing the Quality of Water Used in Dialysis Centers in Baghdad Bacteriologically

Abstract

The quality of water used for dialysis in six dialysis centers belong to five hospitals in Baghdad was evaluated from the bacteriological point of view. Samples of water used in each of these six dialysis centers were examined for total heterotrophic bacteria count (CFU/ml), and endotoxin contamination. Endotoxin was measured on-site using a portable instrument, while bacteriological examinations were done in the laboratory. The results showed a fluctuation in the water quality that makes the dialysis water unaccepted when compared with the AAMI/ISO 13959 standard. Bacterial counts for almost all the centers were above the action level (50 CFU/ml), while five out of the six dialysis centers showed values higher than the maximum value (100 CFU/ml). Endotoxin level was not detected above the maximum standard level in any of the six dialysis centers. All hemodialysis centers need continual monitoring and preventive maintenance to ensure good water quality. In addition, it is important to revise the design of the water treatment units according to the feed and product water quality.