Pattern of Congenital Heart Disease among Children Referred for Echocardiography in Ramadi City, West of Iraq


Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) carries a high rate of mortality and morbidity inthe pediatric population. The gold standard technique for diagnosing CHD is echocardiographicexamination.Objectives: To assess the CHD pattern among children referred for echocardiography in Ramadicity, west of Iraq and to determine the correlation of various types of CHD with age and gender.Materials and methods: The study conducted at Maternity and Children Teaching Hospitalin Ramadi. All patients who evaluated by echocardiography from June 2013 to March 2015were included in this study. All children were evaluated by transthoracic echocardiography usingM-mode by a pediatrician trained in pediatric ECHO. The pattern of CHD was studied, takinginto consideration age and gender distribution.Results: The age range of our 262 patients was 1 day to 14 years (mean 16.6±30.3 months) and themale to female ratio 1.04:1. Acyanotic CHD comprises 87% of the cases. There were 188 (71.76%)patients diagnosed in infancy. Ventricular septal defects (29.39%) were the commonest type, atrialseptal defects (16.03%) were the second, and the least Ebstein anomaly (0.38%). The commonestcyanotic cardiac defect was Fallot Tetralogy. There was a male predominance in ventricular septaldefects, Tetralogy of Fallot, aortic stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, and D-transposition of thegreat arteries. While, female predominance observed in atrioventricular canal defect, atrial septaldefects, patent ductus arteriosus, and pulmonary stenosis.Conclusion: CHD mostly diagnosed in the infants. Acyanotic CHD was the commonest defect.Ventricular septal defects were the commonest acyanotic defect. While Fallot Tetralogy was thecommonest cyanotic CHD. Sex distribution was comparable to that observed in the studies fromother parts of the world.