The Petroleum System of Zubair Formation in Selected Oil fields-Southern Iraq


The Lower Cretaceous Zubair Formation is the most important reservoir in the south of Iraq and adjacent countries, as well as the shale intervals may be the possible source rock. The parameters of the possible source rock within Zubair Formation are accepted, regarding quantity, quality, and thermal maturity. From the total organic carbon values standpoint, shale intervals of Zubair Formation are generally good source rocks, except in the lower parts. While the kerogen types are generally type III gas-oil prone, mix type II/III, and type II oil-prone. The main type of organic matters was amorphous organic matters, which is principally related to oil-prone source rock.The Rock-Eval Pyrolysis shows that the organic geochemical properties presented an effective and/or potential source rock depending on the values of S1, S2, and S3 and their derivatives. The source rock has started the oil expulsion, where the S1/TOC values were mainly more than 0.2 mg HC / g TOC.The modelling explains that the Zubair Formation, wholly, has been entered the onset, partially, the peak, and rarely the end of oil generation in the studied Subzones. This conclusion depends on the calculated temperatures, geothermal gradients, and vitrinite reflectance calibration.