The Effect of Aqueous and Alcoholic Extract of Ziziphus Spina-christi on some Bacterial Isolates Causing Gingivitis

Abstract

Bacterial gingivitis is a most common and mild form of periodontal disease that causes bleeding, redness and swelling (inflammation) of gingiva, around the cervical area of teeth. Untreated gingivitis can progress to periodontal disease, periodontitis, by spreading to supporting tissue of teeth involving bone and periodontal ligament, a much more serious condition that can lead to tooth loss. The study was conducted to investigate the bacteria causing gingivitis with an attempt to investigate the bacterial inhibitory effect of seder leaves extract. Samples consist from (230) gingivitis swab were collected from the patients which are admitted to dental clinics in Tikrit city , among the period extended from March 2016 to February 2017 .Cultural, microscopical and biochemical tests were performed to identify the bacteria causing gingivitis .The results showed 165positive heavy culture of causative bacteria as follows :Gram positive ; Streptococcus mutans (% 18.78 ) , Streptococcus pyogens (% 8.48 ), Streptococcus salivarius (% 6.06 ) , Streptococcus angiosus (% 4.84 ) ,Streptococcus pneumoniae (%3.03 ), Staphylococcus aureus (% 16.96 ), Staphylococcus epidermidis (% 9.09 ) ,while gram negative included Pseudomonas aeruginosa (% 13.93),Escherichia coli (% 9.69 ) ,Klebsiella .spp (%6.66) , and finallyPseudomonas monilli (%2.42).The present study showed that the aqueousand alcoholic extract of Ziziphus spina-christi leaves had inhibitory activity agiants the bacterial species . At the concentration of (200 mg/ml) of seder leaves extract showed the highest effect on bacteria . All the types of bacteria that isolated from the patients with gingivitis had revealed disproportionately sensitivity against antibiotics : Amikacin , ampicillin , tetracycline , gentamicin , chliromphenicol , nalidixic acid , amoxicillin , trimethoprim .The mixture of aqueous extract of seder leaf and antibiotic Gentamicin , Amikacin and amoxicillin revealed high inhibitory synergetic effect against aginst resistant bacteria.