Elevation of the Inhibitory Action of Standard Antimicrobials (Ciprofloxacin and Chlorhexidine) by some Natural Materials against Three Periodontal Pathogens


Maintaining the level of periodontal bacteria under control represents the basis for reducing periodontal infections. Therapeutic therapy along with scaling aids to prevent the causative agent from recolonizing the treated surface. As natural substitutes, this study aimed to verify the validity of two natural products, olibanum and alum as inhibitors of periodontal pathogens and also as supporting agents to elevate the anti-action of the pre- validated antimicrobials, ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidine. The study chose three periodontal bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola as representative taxa because they are considered the more virulent with high proteolytic activity. The antimicrobial activity was studied to find out the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values using resazurin- based microdilution assay. The cooperative interaction between reagents was studied by calculating the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) values, analyzing the statistical difference between the single and combinational use and comparing the inhibition zone by agar diffusion. The results proved the inhibitory activity of olibanum and alum against the three pathogens and their high efficacy in improving the inhibitory action of the two standard drugs which was evidenced by the lowered MIC values, calculated FIC values, enlarged inhibition zone and statistical significance of the combinational use. The study concluded the successful use of olibanum and alum in reducing the red complex pathogens either in a single use or in combination as a pure natural preparation and also raising the anti- action of lower concentrations of ciprofloxacin and chlorhexidin.