Investigating Impact of Industrial and Agricultural Activities on Surface Soil Contamination Using Pollution Indices, North Baiji City, Salah Alden Governorate, Iraq


A total of 18 surface soil samples were collected from surrounding of industrial district at north Baiji town, and the concentration of seven trace elements (i.e. Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, As, Cd and Cr) were analyzed. The geo-accumulation index, pollution index, Nemerow pollution index, ecological risk factor and potential ecological risk index were utilized to assess soil contamination by trace elements. The mean values of geo-accumulation index showed that the study area soils are ranged from moderate to heavy contamination by Ni and slight contamination by As, Cd and Cr and uncontaminated by Zn, Pb and Cu. According to categories of pollution index, the surface soil of study area considers strongly polluted by Ni, moderately polluted by Cr and non-polluted by Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd. The Nemerow pollution index values of study area showed 11% of sites are slightly polluted, 17% of sites are moderately polluted and 72% of sites are seriously polluted. According to Eco- risk factor for an individual metal, the values showed moderate to considerable ecological risk by Cd, low to moderate ecological risk by Ni and low ecological risk for Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cr. For Eco-risk index for metals, the results also showed that 27.8% of sites are low potential ecological risk and 72.2% of sites are moderate potential ecological risk