The impact of various staining substances and immersion time on the stainability of bonded sapphire brackets with three kinds of light cure orthodontic adhesives


Background: The need of the patient for a more reasonable esthetic orthodontic intervention has risen nowadays. Thus,orthodontists make use of esthetic orthodontic materials like brackets, ligature elastics, and arch wires. The esthetic bracketscome as different forms of materials, such as ceramic brackets, which have their stainability remaining as the most importantconsideration for the patients and the orthodontists. This study aimed to compare the staining effects of various stainingmaterials, including black tea, cigarette smoke and Pepsi, as well as the time effect on the color stability of sapphire ceramicbrackets bonded with three kinds of light cure orthodontic adhesives: Transbond, Resilience and Enlight.Materials and Methods: Three hundred sixty sapphire brackets were utilized and divided into three different groups (120brackets per group) based on the type of bonding material. Each group was further subdivided into four subgroups (30 bracketseach) based on the media in which the brackets were fully immersed, including distilled water, black tea, cigarette smoke andPepsi. Moreover, each of these subgroups were further subdivided, based on the time of immersion relative to each media, into3 different smaller subgroups (10 brackets each): one day, 7 days and 14 days with incubation at 37°C. A UV-visible type ofspectrophotometer was utilized in order to perform a light absorption test. ANOVA and post hoc LSD tests were used forcomparison.Results: The smoke of cigarette appeared to be the highest potent staining type among the tested materials followed by Pepsiand tea. The staining effects of all kinds of staining materials in relation to the bonded brackets color with all adhesive typeswere raised with increased time of immersion.Conclusion: The patient’s cooperation and habits should be taken into consideration when using sapphire orthodontic brackets.In addition, the patients should be instructed to decrease the consumption of staining beverages