Examining Principles of Sustainability in Streets of Sulaimani City Center towards Achieving Sustainable Urban City

Abstract

The concept of urban space is associated with society’s needs and behaviors. Since street is the first element of urban form space which defines the old city, it has been used for as multifunctional spaces to include gathering, meeting, shopping, work and enjoyment. However, regarding rapid development and changing in people needs, the street lose some of their functional and urban characteristics. Hence, this affect the street on being sustainable urban space. Accordingly, this paper examines the principles of sustainable urban place with eight factors: connectivity, accessibility, diversity and mixed land-use, attractiveness, comfort, safety, social environment, and liveliness. This fulfilled by conducting people’s opinions on these sustainable factors. The aim of this research is to make Sulaymaniyah city center a sustainable urban city. The research selected (5) main streets in Sulaimani city center as a case study including Mawlawi Street, Kawa Street, Saboonkaran Street, Goran Street (Orezdi), and Piramerd Street. The study employed 240 questionnaire Surveys that analyzed quantitatively using SPSS software. Besides, 20 interviews with lectures and professional architects that analyzed qualitatively. In addition, the study uses direct observation and photography techniques. The study concludes that it is difficult to consider Sulaimani City Centre a sustainable urban city because it does not meet the principles of sustainability efficiently.