ESTIMATING THE HETEROSIS, COMBINING ABILITY AND GENE ACTION FOR THE QUALITY OF WHEAT GRAINS

Abstract

In order to study the heterosis, combining ability, and gene action of the traits related to the quality of the genotypes of the wheat bread (Triticum aestivum .L) are Abu Ghraib, Cauiz, Oasis, Site Mall, Florca, Clack, Milan, Hidab, Aba 99, Sham 6, between them cross Interchangeable half to obtain (45) individual hybrids, planted hybrids with the ten parents with three replicates using (RCBD) design, examined the characteristics of (dry matter, protein ratio, total gluten percentage, dry gluten percentage, wet gluten ratio, ratio of index gluten and ratio Ash), it was found from the table of analysis of variance that the average squares for each of the genotypes, the parents against hybrids and hybrids that the genotypes were significant at the level of probability (1%) for all traits except for the two dry matter and protein percentages, while parents were significant for all traits except for the dry matter and ash, and for parents against hybrids, they were significant at the level of probability (1 %) For the two properties of wet gluten and gluten. As for the rest of the traits did not reach the level of significance, hybrids were significant for all traits at the level of probability (1%) except for the dry matter characteristic. Parents ((Clack) and (Osis) were distinguished by a general combining ability for the majority of traits, while hybrids (Sham 6 * Clack) and (Abu Ghraib * Clack), (Site Mall * Aba 99), (Milan * Sham 6) and (Oasis * Hidab) with combining special ability for the majority of the studied traits. The ratio between the components of the variance of the general combining ability to the components of the variation of the private combining ability was greater than the correct one for all traits, and this indicates the effect of additional variations on the studied traits, and the heterosis on the basis of the deviation of the first generation from the mid parents as a percentage that exceeds (Oasis * Sham 6) and ( Abu Ghraib * Sham 6), (Oasis * Florca), (Klak * Aba 99) and (Klak * Sham 6) and the heterosis on the basis of the best parents as a percentage that has outperformed crosses (Site Mall * Aba 99), (Klak * Sham 6) and (Hidab * Sham 6 ) For the majority of hybrids in studied traits.