Hymes and Sacks Models in Discourse Analysis of Short Story


Discourse analysis is an instrument which is used in analyzing elements that influence our understanding of a particular text. Thus, discourse analysis is a highly coherent model in analyzing any spoken or written texts like conversation short story.The aim of this study is to analyze a short story and to show how the discourse is initiated,, how the characters participate, interact and what are the relationships among them, how those characters are introduced in the story; how they interrupt, ask questions, and how turns are distributed. The study also aims at counting the number of topics and how they are interrelated and to know whether the sequence of events is logical or not. In order to achieve these aims, the study investigates the discourse of a written text of a short story namely, The Man of the House, by analyzing and describing the different strategies , developing, and terminating. The study adopts an eclectic model namely; Hymes's model (1972) who suggests the category of "speech event", and Sacks's model (1968) which proposes interaction analysis based on four categories "conversation", "topic", "sequence", and "turn". The present study hypothesizes that discourse analysis is conducted depending on the text and context and how the two terms complete each other. The meaning of the text is completed by action. Analysis is to be achieved structurally and linguistically. Throughout the analysis, it has been found that the participants perform different speech events. In the analysis of speech events, the number of major events is 22 which forms (24.5%), while the number of minor events is 68 which forms (75.5%). It is clear that the number of minor events is more than major events because the writer was interested in giving details. He described the places, and the actions of the participants. To sum up, the events are logically sequenced. It is worth mentioning that the participants in the story are of different social classes. The participants sometimes address each other by using terms of address in order to show respect; especially since some of them are of higher status. The story is narrated in the first person pronoun ( I ), which means that the writer talks about his personal life. Sullivan did most of the turns, (41) which represents 47.6% of the total turns as he is the protagonist and the most important participant in the story. Dooley had (14) turns so that she came second in order that represents 16.2%. The mother came third in rank and did (13) turns which represents 15.5%. Some of the participants participated in conversations more than others: Dooley and Sullivan for instance participate in 12 turns which represents 29.2%, while Minnie and Sullivan participate in 9 turns which forms 21.9%. It is also found that the discourse is composed of the cooperating acts, interaction of the participants, sequence of events, topics, and other units. Discourse analysis shows when and where the turns and topics are shifted, and changed. The use of fillers, such as (Ah) and (Oh), is important and related to the use of discourse; (Ah) occurs 8 times that is 72.7%, whilst (Oh) occurs 3 times that is 27.2%. The use of fillers is varied according to their function. Finally, the linguistic analysis of literature has many implications and benefits for language teaching.