The Portrayal of Microbes in Respiratory Medicine

Abstract

Respiratory diseases caused by a number of infectious agents including Streptococcal pneumonia, streptococcal pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniaH. influenzae, Legionella pneumophilia, Mycoplasma pneumonia, Coxiella Bunetii, chlamydia pisittaci. These microbes enter into the lungs andcause primary cases of pneumonia. The whole respiratory epithelium down to the internal bronchioles is ciliated. The cilia and the thin film of mucuscovering them have the critical function of trapping foreign particles, including bacteria, and propelling them toward the pharynx. They contributeto the prevention of respiratory infection as they do the macrophages utilizing their secretory, phagocytic, and bactericidal activity. Despite thewonderful defense, the bacterium escapes and settles in the lungs to produce diseases. Pneumonia is the term used to describe inflammation ofthe lung. Pneumococcal pneumonia is characterized by homologous consolidation of one or more lobes or segments. Pneumococcal pneumoniaoccurs at all ages but most frequently in early and middle adult life. Pneumonia is characterized with the rise in body temperature 39-40oC,remain associated with painful cough initially dry, but later patient develops production of tenacious sputum, which is often rusty and occasionallybloodstained. Staphylococcal pneumonia is caused due to Streptococcus aureus, which may occur either as a primary respiratory infection or asa blood‑borne infection from a staphylococcal lesion elsewhere in the body. Klebsiella pneumonia is caused due to K. pneumoniae, a rare diseasewith high mortality. There is usually massive consolidation and excavation of one or more lobes, with the upper lobes being most often involvedand with large amounts of purulent sputum, sometimes characteristic red currant jelly sputum. Legionella pneumonia is caused by Gram‑negativebacillus L. pneumophila, which is usually transmitted in water droplets from infected cisterns used to provide water for showers, particularly inwarm climates. It is often a serious and occasionally a fatal illness. C. psittaci causes psittacosis (ornithosis), a systemic illness contracted frominfected birds. Pneumonia associated with it may be extensive, with severe toxemia. M. pneumoniae is a pleomorphic bacterium; symptoms ofmycoplasma pneumonia are mild compared to other cases of pneumonia (walking pneumonia). On the other hand, liver function test derangementsand dyselectrolytemia are more common. It is susceptible to tetracyclines though a few strains are sensitive only to erythromycin.