The experience of modernity by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Reza Shah Pahlavi. A comparative study


The process of reform in the various institutions of states that would transfer the states from an old or a conservative reality to a more renewed reality is commensurate with the requirements of development in the world.This process can be called modernity. It is the trait that distinguished Turkey and Iran during the establishment era through the arrival of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk and Reza Shah Pahlavi to power. They started with several procedures and actions that were in the form of issuing a series of laws and regulations in addition to instructions that included the constitutional aspect And organizing political work in a way that guarantees the release of public freedoms, strengthening the parliamentary system and guaranteeing civil rights, as well as developing the performance of economic institutions to ensure the realization of public and private benefit and increasing the resources of the two countries. As well as the decisions included the social and cultural aspect and the change of some general practices related to customs and traditions And also ancient cultures in proportion to the new reality. The special upbringing of both leaders from a military and leadership hierarchy in her success made a change, especially through their emergence in the process of building the modern state. Leading the country strongly and firmly through new liberations against society despite strong opposition to some of them, especially in Iran, especially in the social and cultural aspect, and facing the religious establishment there. The two leaders benefited from their military history and fully controlled the military, which created a state of political stability and the absence of strong opposition, which contributed positively to the modernization process in Turkey and Iran.