The impact of religious beliefs on the architecture of ancient Iraqi temples and ziggurats (Babylon ziggurat as a model)

Abstract

The subject of religious beliefs is one of the important topics in the field of ancient archaeological and historical studies, as beliefs, worship and religious rituals occupied a large and important space in the lives of ancient peoples and left clear traces on their civilizational path. Perhaps we would not be wrong if we said that the religious aspect was one of the most important factors affecting the civilizations of ancient nations. No matter how different and different religions may be, it can be said in general that they assume the presence of a power or higher powers in the universe, which man always seeks to get closer to through certain rituals and rituals that are held in designated places known as the “temple” in the civilization of Mesopotamia. The research dealt with two main axes, the first of which was: the impact of religious beliefs on the architecture of the ancient temple and ziggurat of Babylon, the “Tower of Babel.” In it, the history of the construction of the temple and its famous ziggurat was dealt with and documented, and the most important opinions and hypotheses that were put forward regarding the origin of its name and the correct chronological history of its construction and renewal by kings and rulers Mesopotamia through different historical eras in the light of cuneiform sources and archaeological evidence revealed by the results of archaeological excavations in the city of Babylon and its neighboring ancient cities in the last century. While the second axis dealt with the Tower of Babel and the city of Bursaba (Press Nimrud), in which the dialectical relationship between the Tower of Babel and the ziggurat of Bursaba in the city of Bursaba was dealt with. Reference was also made to the most important fabrications of the Bursaba ziggurat and its relationship to the Tower of Babel, from fictional stories and mythical tales that appeared in historical and other sources, influenced by what was mentioned in the narrations of the Old Testament book "The Torah", which raised many questions and controversy among researchers, specialists, and even the general public on The ziggurat of Borsaba is the Tower of Babel. Hence, this study attempted to provide some answers to these questions through the use of cuneiform sources, studies and the results of the archaeological excavations that took place at the site of the city and its environs.