Phase Transformations, Microstructure and Shape Memory Effect of NiTiAg Alloy with Different Atomic Percentages (at. % Ag) Manufactured by Casting Method


In this paper, shape memory alloys (SMAs) (NiTi-based) have been manufactured by casting with a different atomic percentage of a silver element (0, 1, 2 and 3 at. % Ag) using a Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) furnace. The silver element is added to the binary alloys due to its excellent properties such as (anti-corrosion, anti-bacterial and high electrical conductivity), which make these alloys using in wider applications. These alloys with different atomic percentages (Ni55Ti45Ag0, Ni55Ti44Ag1, Ni55Ti43Ag2 and Ni55Ti42Ag3) have been manufactured. The successful manufacturing process has been achieved and proved via examinations and tests. The FESEM microscopic examinations show that the silver element has been distributed uniformly and homogeneously in the NiTi matrix. Moreover, the emergence of austenite phase, martensite phase and little amount impurities. Regarding the XRD examination, showed that there is an increase in the number of peaks of Ag phase with an increase in the atomic percentage of the silver element, as well to emergence of phase (Ti2Ni) upon heating, phase (Ti 002) upon cooling, and phase (Ni4Ti3) is not desired. The starting and finishing of the phase transformations have been determined for all samples by the DSC test. The Shape Memory Effect (SME) for the alloy (Ni50Ti42Ag3) is measured to be about 89.99%.