Wheat and Its Types in Ancient Iraq


Cereals in general, and wheat in particular, are considered a basic food for the peoples of the ancient Near East civilization. Therefore, evidence and archaeological remains have proven that Iraq, especially the northern part of it, is the first home for wheat cultivation. So, Wheat represents a great and extreme importance in addition to the great nutritional value of grains for humans and animals and their importance in food and life consumption and its great importance and role in food insurance and the resulting growth and stability and its role in the agricultural economy, which represented one of its most important pillars and main elements, as represented by grains, mainly wheat, which Its remains dated back to earlier periods of time in ancient times, which were found in most archaeological sites in many regions of the ancient world as an important and significant source of information for archaeological discovery, especially in sites belonging to the period of Mesopotamia. In particular, the northern part of it, is the first home for wheat cultivation, and it was domesticated from wild origins that were growing in the region. In Jarmo, charred grains were found belonging to a type of wheat whose spike bears two rows of grains, and another type whose spike bears four rows. As for bread wheat, its spike bears six rows, especially when agriculture moved to the sedimentary plains depending on irrigation. Wheat cultivation is spread in particular in all regions of Iraq, but it differs between north and south, in the north its cultivation depends on rain (Deam) It begins in November and may be delayed until early January, while the harvest in these areas is in the month of May and June. In the south, their cultivation depends on irrigation (Seeh). The cultivation is known as the early two types, which are called (Harfy) and occur during the month of October and November. As for the late one, which is called (Avla), it is postponed to January and sometimes to February, while the harvest in the south is in April and May, noting that early cultivation is more productive and growth. The first topic included: a historical overview of the emergence of agriculture in Mesopotamia. The second topic included: the definition of wheat. As for the third topic, it includes types of wheat and its ancient storage. Here, the researcher relied in his study of the research and its presentation on a number of important specialized sources that included important and large information on the subject, which we analyzed, scrutinized and deductive study accordingly in accordance with the nature of the topic and its content and the scientific truth on which the research was built, its results and content.