Solar Activities and their Relationship to the Maximum Temperatures of the City of Baghdad for the Solar Cycles 23 and 24


The interaction of solar activities with the layers of the Earth's atmosphere determines the pattern of the complex climate system. It is clear that any change in incoming solar radiation has the potential to affect the climate. In this research, the effect of the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares on the maximum temperatures of the summer seasons over the city of Baghdad for the time period (1996-2019) representing the 23 and 24 solar cycles was studied. CME data were collected from the SOHO/LASCO CME Catalog. Solar flare data were taken from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Center (NOAA) database. As for the geoclimatic data for the study for the summer seasons, it was relied on through the meteorological ground station in Baghdad affiliated with the Iraqi General Authority for Meteorology and Seismic Monitoring. The statistical program Minitab 19.0 was used, and the results showed a direct relationship between the energies of coronal mass ejections and solar flares with maximum temperatures during the solar cycles 23 and 24. Except for the descending phase of the solar cycle 24, the results showed an inverse relationship.