New Targets for Drug Therapy in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming more prevalent at an alarming rate. With a better understanding of its pathophysiology, new treatment alternatives directed to different critical targets in T2DM have been created and studied. The development of novel therapeutics using various methods, such as novel medication combinations, changed drug molecules, and enhanced delivery systems, can eliminate some of the side effects of old drugs while also improving their efficacy. Newer pharmacological targets such as protein kinase B (Akt/PKB), AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), sirtuin (SIRT), and others are effective through different processes. They can be used to treat T2DM of various types and etiologies. Other medicines, such as end barrier, gene therapy, and stem cell technology, employ advanced ways to treat T2DM, and their promise remains untapped. Molecular targets in T2DM are also extensively evaluated because of their capacity to target problems at the molecular level. Antibody treatments and immunizations against T2DM are also investigated in this area. However, there are few current clinical studies, and development progress is modest. There are numerous medicines available to treat T2DM, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. The treatment plan that the patient prefers is usually determined by the patient's health and the treatment aim. Many aspects should be considered before choosing an ideal treatment option. Patient compliance, therapeutic efficacy and potency, bioavailability, and other pharmacological and nonpharmacological features are only a few examples.