Effect of some Heavy Metals on Carbohydrates, Proteins and Phenolic Compounds Content in Olive and Oleander Leaves at Three Intersection of Tikrit Streets

Abstract

The study was conducted in the city of Tikrit. Three intersections of the city were chosen. Soil samples were taken from a depth of 30cm with olive and oleander leaves from each location from April to October 2021, to study the effect of heavy metals resulting from the crowded cars at the intersections of Tikrit city on the primary and secondary metabolic products of olive and oleander plants grown on the sides of the roads. The heavy metals were examined in the soil and plants of the study from the selected sites in which the highest rate of Lead (2.1) per part million in the soil of the first site. Iron concentration has part rates, within the permissible limits and reached to (13.9) per part million in the soil of the first site too. The analyses of olive have shown that Iron has been recorded the highest concentration reached (7.23) per part million in the third site. The primary metabolic compounds, such as: carbohydrates and total protein, of the plants have been identified. These compounds have been recorded low rates in olive and oleander leaves as a consequence of the exposure to pollutants, including heavy metals in traffic areas. Five phenolic compounds were diagnosed in olive and oleander leaves, where the highest concentration of the total phenolic content was recorded with a value of (5898.72, 8460.23) per part million, respectively. Meanwhile the phenolic compounds (Quercetin, Cinnamic acid) have recorded the highest values (1223.51, 1067.27) per part million in the both plants respectively.