The evaluation of red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients with acute ST- segment elevation myocardial infarction in Erbil city: a cross sectional study

Abstract

Background: The relationship of high red cell distribution width (RDW) with many hematological and angiographic characteristics in type 2 diabetic patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is still a matter of debate.Objective: To evaluate the relationship of high RDW with multiple hematological and angiographic characteristics in type 2 diabetic patients with acute STEMI.Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, one hundred patients with acute STEMI who underwent coronary angiography were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); group I, diabetic patients and group II, non-diabetic patients. Further division was made to group I patients based on how high or low RDW level was; subgroup A patients with high RDW level, and subgroup B patients with low RDW level. The groups were evaluated and compared regarding baseline demographic, laboratory and angiographic characteristics.Results: The mean RDW was higher (P=0.04) in group I compared to group II. The mean values of white blood cell (WBC) , RDW, CK-MB, Troponin T high sensitive (hs) , and HbA1C levels were significantly higher in subgroup A compared to subgroup B (P=0.007, 0.003, 0.03 and < 0.001, respectively). Subgroup A patients have significantly more extension of coronary diseases than subgroup B (P=0.001). A positive correlation was detected between RDW and WBC, CK-MB, Troponin T hs, HbA1C as well as number of diseased vessels in diabetic patients (0.76, 0.4, 0.98 and 0.79, respectively).Conclusion: Diabetic patients with acute STEMI had higher levels of RDW than non-diabetics and higher levels were positively correlated with inflammatory and poor outcome cardiovascular markers as well as multiple vessel diseases involvement. It was also correlated with poor glycemic control represented by high HbA1C.