Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) Anthropogenic Emissions Distributions Over Iraq (2000-2009) Using MERRA-2 Data

Abstract

Received 14/07/2022 The Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless air pollutant cannot be been seen with naked eyes. The fossil fuels burning, of coal, oil and gas, biomass combustion. are the largest sources of SO2. Sometimes SO2 Pollution reaches hazardous levels near coal-fired plants, oil refineries, and industrialized areas. This study analyzed the trend, spatial and temporal distributions of anthropogenic SO2 emissions in Iraq from January 2000 to December 2009. The monthly SO2 was analyzed and investigated using the time series and trends over six stations: Baghdad, Mosul, Basra, Muthanna, Babylon, and Kirkuk were conducted using the data set. The results show clear reductions in SO2 values from 2002 to 2006, and the SO2 values increase from 2006 to 2009 over all stations. The annual trend analyses show positive results over Baghdad, Muthanna, and Babylon, and negative results over Basra, Mosul and Kirkuk. Large differences in SO2 values were over Basra, Kirkuk and Babylon, and slight differences over Baghdad, Mosul and Muthanna. The monthly SO2 anthropogenic emissions values show relatively constant over most stations, and the only fluctuation was over Babylon and Kirkuk during the study. The higher SO2 values were observed in winter and spring than in the summer. This study confirmed the satellite observations efficiently show the spatial and temporal variations of SO2 for the considered study area.