Tribalism and its impact on building the civil state in Iraq after 2003

Abstract

The American occupation of Iraq post 2003 created a state of chaos, lawlessness, and weakness of the state and its institutions, which prompted the Iraqi citizen to return to the tribal system and take shelter in it in order to preserve his life and interests. This means that the tribe has regained its strength in the lives of individuals in the cities and the countryside alike, which has further weakened the role of the state and the emergence of armed sectarian groups fighting each other. The culture of violence and carrying weapons has spread, which poses a challenge to the efforts of successive governments in building a civil state in Iraq.