Modulating the Haematological and Cytogenetic Effects of Mitomycin C by Aqueous Extract of Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundus L.)

Abstract

The aqueous extract (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) of nut grass (Cyperus rotundus L.) rhizomes was evaluated orally in albino male mice using some haematological (total leucocyte count) and cytogenetic (mitotic index, micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow cells) parameters. The extract interaction with the mutagen mitomycin C (MMC) was also evaluated through two types of treatments (pre- and post-treatments). The results revealed that the dose 15 mg/kg of the extract significantly increased the total count of leucocytes (7634.4 vs. 6783.3 cells/cu.mm. blood), while the mitotic index showed no significant differences, as compared to negative controls. However, the spontaneous formation of micronuclei in the bone marrow cells was significantly decreased in the three investigated doses of the extract (0.30, 0.32 and 0.29, respectively vs. 0.62%), while the chromosomal assay showed similar frequencies in the negative control and nut grass-treated animals. With respect to the interaction with MMC, the pre-treatment (15 mg/kg) enhanced the leucocyte count (10358.6 vs. 3800.2 cells/cu.mm.blood) and mitotic index (11.9 vs. 6.5%), and a similar picture was drawn when the pos-treatment was considered (8884.2 vs. 4292.7 cells/cu.mm.blood; 14.6 vs. 7.6%). However, the doses 5 and 10 mg/kg of the plant extract were much more effective in reducing the MMC-induced micronucleus formation in both types of treatments especially the dose 5 mg/kg (pre-treatment: 4.24 vs. 16.29%; post-treatment: 3.79 vs. 14.34%). With respect to chromosomal aberration assay, the dose 15 mg/kg of the extract was the most effective dose in reducing the MMC-induced aberrations, but the post-treatment was better than pre-treatment in this respect (0.29 vs. 0.79 aberration/cell).