Levels of Magnesium, Zinc, Calcium and Copper in Serum of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome


ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic musculoskeletal syndrome; almost invariably, symptoms persist at 5- and 10-year follow-ups. Several studies reported the importance of trace elements on the immune system. It plays an important role in physiological processes that are crucial for normal functioning of the immune system. Fibromyalgia could be the result of an over-active immune system, the immune system works to protect the body by attacking bacteria, viruses, and other foreign cells. When over-active, the immune system can cause severe inflammation and pain.OBJECTIVE:The main objective of this study is the association between the levels of Magnesium, Zinc, Calcium and Copper in patients with FMS.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was performed during the period from April 2009 to February 2010, and included 60 patients with FMS according to the ACR 1990 criteria, these criteria, a history of widespread pain has been present for at least three months affecting all four quadrants of the body, i.e., both sides, and above and below the waist, and there are 18 designated possible tender or trigger points. During diagnosis, four kilograms-force (39 newtons) of force is exerted at each of the 18 points; the patient must feel pain at 11 or more of these points for fibromyalgia to be considered. Four kilograms of force is about the amount of pressure required to blanch the thumbnail when applying pressure. Their age range was from 20-60 with the mean age of 39.95 ± 1.10 years. These patients were matched by age and sex to 30 healthy control subjects with the mean age 42.81 ± 2.16 years. Blood samples were taken from each individual and separated for the estimation of Mg, Zn, Ca and Cu levels using atomic absorption technique. The laboratory tests were done in Teaching Laboratories of the Medical City and the Department of Physiological Chemistry / College of Medicine University of Baghdad.RESULTS:The level of Mg, Zn and Ca in serum of patients with FMS was significantly lower than in serum of healthy control while the level of Cu in serum of FMS patients was significantly higher than healthy control.CONCLUSION:Thelevels of Mg, Zn, Ca concentrations in serum of patients with FMS were significantly lower than healthy control subjects, while Cu concentration in patients with FMS was significantly higher than healthy control subjects and levels of Mg, Zn, Ca and Cu may be a good indicator to evaluate this disease.