Risk Factors of Bronchial Ahtma in Children … A Hospital Based Study

Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND :Asthma is characterized by inflammation of the airways with intermittent bronchospasm. Bronchial asthma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood. There are many identifiable risk factors contributing to both the expression and persistence of asthma .OBJECTIVE:This study threw a light on some of the risk factors of bronchial asthma in childhood.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This study was performed to determine some of the risk factors of childhood asthma in 62 asthmatic children admitted to Children Welfare Teaching Hospital in Baghdad Medical City in the period from 1st February to 1st July 2007 . The control group was composed of 108 age and sex matched children attending the outpatient clinic with non pulmonary health problems .RESULTS :Forty two ( 67.7%) asthmatic children were males and 20(32.2%) were females with a male to female ratio of 2.1:1 . Fifty two(83.8%) suffered from bronchial asthma before the age of 3 years , While 10(16.2%) acquired the disease after this age . A positive family history of asthma was positive in 31(50%) asthmatic children compared to 9 (8.33%) in the control group , scoring a highly significant association. A positive family history of allergic rhinitis (27.41%) in asthmatic children was more often recorded than in the control group (21.29%) but the difference was not statistically significant . A highly significant association between a positive history of smoking at home environment and childhood bronchial asthma was detected , where it was found positive in 50(80.6%)asthmatic children and in 55(50.9%) controls . A low crowding index ( ≤ 3 persons /room) was recorded in 52 (83.9%)asthmatics compared to 72 (66.6%) controls , Scoring a significant association between low home density and childhood bronchial asthma.CONCLUSION:The present study concludes certain risk factors being associated with asthma namely positive family history of asthma , passive smoking and low crowding index. The study recommends avoidance of smoking at home where a child with a positive history of these risk factors resides .