Hazard Analysis of the Suspended Particles Inhalation in the Ambient Air of Baghdad City

Abstract

An environmental impact of total suspended particulate matter (TSP) inhalation released from electrical generators, vehicles and industries are undertaken in this study. The atmospheric particulate and fallout rates sampling processes are carried out in the urban, commercial and industrial areas of Baghdad city by using portable dust sampler (Sniffer, L-30). The likelihood or probability of adverse health effects to the exposed individuals of Baghdad population related to continuous inhalation of airborne particles at the mean observed concentrations is estimated in this study using the hazard index (HI) concept. The findings of this study suggest that airborne particulate pollution is a considerable environmental hazard since the analytical laboratory reports an airborne particulate matter concentration of 453 g/m3, which is 3 times the national ambient air quality standard established by the Iraqi Ministry of Environment and 9 times the annual ambient air quality standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The scientific findings of this study indicate that all members of the exposed population receive airborne particulate matter at concentrations likely to cause significant adverse health effects including cardiac disorders, bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, emphysema and like above natural background rates. The adverse health effects of total suspended particulates inhalation on the exposed infants and children are found to be occurs at a largest extent in comparison with adults (Hazardchild > Hazardinfant > Hazardadult) due to lower body weight. The qualitative classification of ambient air quality of Baghdad City according to the mean observed TSP concentration indicates that "action" is recommended for pollution sources since the mean observed concentrations of this air pollutant exceed guidelines and completely unacceptable by national and international standards.