Food security in Iraq .. Challenges and future prospects


The desire to achieve a certain amount of food security, is the desire of old as humanity itself. So it was not food and food security in one day the subject technically neutral. But has always been at the heart of many conflicts shapes and faces that the world has witnessed in the circumstances and the times of successive. Today, after the failure of the development process in many developing countries including Arab countries. Which the depth of economic and social crisis in these countries. The transformation of surplus food in the developed countries to political weapon used against countries in need of food. Which are often subject these countries to political and economic conditions at the expense of sovereignty and national security. Making the issue of food security issues of the most dangerous and most complex and sensitive, and one of the most exciting topics for discussion at the international, regional officially and organizationally. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the international organizations and interested parties Eduard provide food for humans. And held on so many conferences, and was the conference organized by the organization in 1996 of important conferences, held under the banner of food for all. The Conference discussed the possibility of addressing the problem of 839 million people in the world exhibition of famine. However, international action called for by the Conference were not real and serious to address the problem of the hungry. Because after twelve years on the conference, we find that the hungry had increased today to reach more than 1000 million people. And has become the issue of providing food of the most issues haunting for most governments in the developing world that suffer from a deficit in food production, especially after the decline in rates of global production of food and high prices in international markets, which are many countries unable to import food levels needed by the people because of their financial bills to afford the high Akiem food importer. The apparent seriousness of the problem of food in the Arab countries of their impact double on each of the exposure of food security which is the exposure to its national security, and on its ability to achieve economic and social development. Because the inability of the community in obtaining the necessary food will lead to the deterioration of public health, and thus lose a lot of efficiency and capabilities of the workforce in the correct performance in the delivery of programs and plans of the development process. The growth of population in the Arab region at rates greater than the rates of food production, aggravate the problem, and turning the food gap than just trade and economic problem can be overcome if there is financial resources to the complex political problem plaguing the stability of Arab national security.And Iraq, one of the Arab countries that suffer from a large food deficit for more than three decades and depends on more than 60% of its food imported from the international markets. Putting him at the mercy of fluctuations that occur in these markets and the policies pursued by the dominant nations on trade in food and the loss of the elements of food security. Although Iraq may be a country more fortunate than other countries in abundance of financial resources that enable it to import food, but the availability of financial resources may not be sufficient to achieve food security as we have seen during the siege because of political and economic sanctions imposed on the political system. And the inability of domestic production to meet the requirements of food for its citizens.Today, after what passed by the Iraq war and the siege contributed to the growing problem of food from both sides, the first aspect that these conditions led to the destruction of the basic components of the agricultural sector, which led to a further reduction in the rates of production, especially after the U.S. occupation of Iraq in 2003 as it went down the contribution of agricultural production from 11% in 1998 to 8.2 in 2003 and then to 6.6% in 2005 (1). The second aspect that the conditions of occupation led to the destruction of the infrastructure for transport and distribution of food and the inability of formal institutions to secure the food in the quantities and times required. All this led to a reduction of the ration card items to lower levels of the siege. Especially if we know that the ration card is the main source for the majority of the Iraqi people. And stop working out will show about 50% of the community to the dangers of malnutrition. The question today is should continue to ration cards for food security of the Iraqi society that have been able to keep the Iraqi people to acceptable levels relatively food during the siege, and whether the state can continue to cover the cost of the ration card, especially if the ration card burden the state budget of more than 4 billions of dollars annually (2). Even if the state was able to secure funds to import food but that food security will remain depends on fluctuations in international markets and is subject to the conditions imposed by the producers of food.In light of the food gap large due to the inability of agricultural production to meet the growing needs of food and declining global production of food due to drought, high food prices because of subsidies provided to producers of food in accordance with WTO procedures. We come to wonder about the future of food security in Iraq in light of the growing population during the decade next?. Is it available natural potential is able to enhance food security and reduce the food gap?. This research is trying to answer that by showing and analyzing the most important components of enhancing food security and the challenges facing it.


Food security