Position industrious Mohamed Hussein of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran 1905 - 1911


This paper deals with and Islamic guide Sheikh Muhammad Hussein Al-Naieny's attitude towards the Constitutionary revolution in Iran, which lasts from 1909-1911. This revolution caused a huge change in the political and social life, especially when it called for restricting the Shah's authorities in the time when Iran entered a conflict between tradition and modernity. The constitutional revolution was one of the consequences of that conflict. The revolution encountered violent reactions not only in Iran, but also in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf. When a debate on the revolution started, it divided Al-Mujtahideen into two sects: opponents or supporters. This division led to the appearance of two contradictory schools. Therefore, dangerous trends guided. the nation to be on one side against the other. The Islamic guide AL-Naieny supported the constitution; he was one of the major staff members of Al-ulama who supported the constitution. He called for canceling religion and political autocracy. His thoughts agitated Shi'et clergymen to enter the political life, asking the colonial countries to withdraw from the colonies. The constitutionary revolution led by Al-Naieny started to reconcile between Islamic principles and the progressive European societies in all walks of life. At that time, the Islamic countries retreated. This was achieved through establishing the principles of a modern State, built on the connection between civilization and parliament. Al-Naieny introduced the principle of political constitutionary practice through an Islamic point of view. His book "Tanbih al-Ummah wa Tanzih al-Milla" was considered the highest level of political speculation to the conditioned Persian constitutionary revolution. It was a book in Islamic political Fiqih. The book includes audacious opinions about the freedom of press, general opinion and women education. The ideas in the book presented by a Shi'et faqih, in the field of political and government, especially when he talked about power by the kings, were consistent. That was against Islamic principles. Al-Naieny referred to terrorism and the Islamic government. He also considered the constitutionary revolution as a substitute for Al-Fiqih or Al-Ma'som State. Despite this, the book caused clamor between clergymen and educators inside and outside Persia. Therefore, al-Naieny's thoughts are distinguished from the others by the nature of the trend and the practical attitude he followed. He left a new scientific trend in the field of government and politics especially that related to religion.