Evaluation of periodontal status in type 2diabetic patients on statin therapy

Abstract

Background: Dyslipidemia is prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Statin drugs were first used to treat hypercholesterolemia and later to treat dyslipidemia particularly in DM. However, it was found that they also have an anti-inflammatory pleiotropic effect. Chronic periodontitis is a continuous inflammatory process whose progression is modulated by the presence of DM.Aim of study: To assess the association between the use of statin drugs and any improvement in periodontal status.Materials & methods: Eighty (40 males and 40 females) type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were selected consecutively but with consideration of sex and exclusion criteria to compose two groups: - Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who were on a statin drug for at least six months and were assigned as the ( Statin group ).-Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who received no statin drug at any time and were assigned as ( Non statin group ).Periodontal status was evaluated by periodontal disease index (PDI) which includes plaque, calculus, and periodontal components of this index.Assessment of glycemic control included serum glucose assay and HbA1c assay.Lipid profile assay included estimation of serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and calculation of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Results: The difference between the mean levels of HbA1c in statin group and non statin group was statistically non significant (8.61±1.82% vs. 9.10±1.26% respectively). There were no significant differences between statin group and non statin group in regard to the mean levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C. The mean level of TG was higher in statin group and the difference was statistically of high significance (151.10±55.02 vs. 122.43±34.39 mg/dl, P<0.01). The mean values of plaque, calculus, and periodontal disease index were lower in statin group than in non statin group. The difference in plaque index was statistically highly significant (1.31±.0.57 vs. 1.70±0.50, P<0.01), while the differences in calculus index and periodontal disease index were statistically significant (0.61±0.47 vs. 0.87±0.65, and 2.75±0.89 vs. 3.16±.0.78 respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusion: Diabetic patients on statin therapy exhibited fewer clinical signs of periodontal disease than those without statin therapy. Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Statins, Periodontitis