Measure the extent of pessimism and optimism among the students


This research has been conducted to measure the extent to which optimistic–pessimistic outlook is existing among Administration and Economics / University of Mustansiriya students and how it varies between them according to gender (male/female). To approach the targeted objectives of the research, applied Optimism – Pessimism scale to 300 mixed sample of university student statistical treatments of the collected data revealed that about tow thirds of the sample or exactly 194,i.e 74.9% range between optimistic and moderate pessimistic positions. This attitude predominates among 62.7% males and 37.3% females . The number of the group that expressed excessive optimism amounts to only 104 students (14.7%) divided into 54% males and 46% . Nearly two-thirds of the research sample, the number of (194) individuals,. The rest of the sample by (27) students, an increase (10.4%) of the total sample are characterized by extreme pessimism. And (38) students, an increase (14.7%) of the total sample are characterized by extreme optimism.As can be seen approaching ratios of males and females in the moderate-level of optimism - pessimism, as was the proportion of pessimism - optimism moderate amount (70.8% vs. 80.9%) for males and females respectively, while the proportion of males greater than the percentages of females in the pessimistic extreme, and even bigger than females in extreme optimism, as the figures were respectively (13% versus 6.7%) and in the extreme pessimism (16.2% vs. 12.4%) in the extreme optimism.