A Syntactic Study of the Overlap between Substitution and Reference


ABSTRACT The current study deals with the overlap between substitution and reference as grammatical phenomena in English. It aims at studying and discussing some of the syntactic problems that may arise due to the similarity of elements used to express the purpose of each. Besides, the study aims to produce a comprehensive study of these two notions and their subdivisions in order to be acquainted with the means employed in each one. Finally, it also proposes the positions in which the overlap may come to view. It is hypothesized that there is an apparent overlap between substitution and reference, yet; they must be realized differently. The study arrived at the following conclusions :(1) There is an apparent interference between substitution and reference. (2) Substitution is prior and more comprehensive and reference is part of it. (3) The context of situation is important in the interpretation of substitution and reference.