Trace elements and oxidative stress markers in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings


Background: Amalgam is the most frequently used restorative material for dental treatment. It is mainly used inposterior teeth, usually on occlusal surfaces as an economical, long lasting and durable filling material and representthe main source of exposure to mercury and other toxic metals (copper, tin, silver, etc.).This study designed to measure oxidative stress marker malondialdehyde (MDA) and anti-oxidants (uric acid andglutathione) concentrations in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings. And measure trace elements (copper, zinc)concentrations in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings.Subjects,materials and methods: Fifty subjects were participated in this study, they were between the age of (20-50)years with amalgam fillings (cases group) and fifty one subjects with no amalgam fillings (control group), they weregender and age matched to that of subjects with amalgam fillings. Informed consent and ethical approval wasobtained. Each subject fill a case sheet questionnaire then examined by using sterile dental mirror and sterile dentalprobe to determine any oral manifestations and to calculate the number of amalgam filled teeth and the number offilled surfaces.Results: The results obtained from this study showed that Oxidative stress marker (MDA) were increased whileantioxidants (glutathione, uric acid) were decreased in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings. Trace elements(copper, zinc) were higher in saliva of subjects with amalgam fillings; salivary copper was significantly higher insubjects with > 10 amalgam filled teeth. Salivary total glutathione was significantly correlated (negative correlation)with the number of filled teeth. Salivary copper was significantly correlated (positive correlation) with the number offilled teeth and filled surfaces.Conclusion: This study revealed that amalgam fillings associated with increase in oxidative stress marker(MDA) anddecrease in antioxidants (glutathione, uric acid).Trace elements (copper, zinc) increased in saliva of subjects withamalgam fillings.