A Comparative Study of Oxidant and Antioxidant Levels Between Human Milk With Other Types of Ruminant Animals


AbstractThe present study was conducted in Mosul city to show the oxidants and antioxidants levels in different types of mature milk for (Human, buffalo, cow, sheep, goat) and compared them with each other, beside of showing the effect of age on the composition of human breast milk by measuring biochemical parameters which include: vitamin E, vitamin C, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase(GST), albumin, ceruloplasmin (Cp), glutathione(GSH), total bilirubin, uric acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxynitrate(OONO-) and the metals (Copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe)). The study included (144) sample represented in five groups according to types of milk: human milk (59 nonsmokers), buffalo milk(19), cow milk(23), sheep milk(22) and goat milk(21) .The results showed significant increase in vitamin E for sheep, human, cow, goat and buffalo milk respectively, but showed significant increase for vitamin C in sheep milk and decreased in cow milk when compared with other groups. Also SOD showed high levels in human and goat milks, but low levels in sheep milk, while GST showed high significant levels in buffalo and cow milk, and lower in sheep milk. The GSH observed significant increased in human milk, but decreased in buffalo, beside of increased Cp in goat milk and decreased in human milk.Moreover, it has been observed that there was significant increase in uric acid, for cow milk, but decreased in buffalo milk. On the other hand, the total bilirubin observed significant increased in sheep milk, but decreased in cow milk. The MDA observed significant increase in buffalo milk, but decreased in sheep milk and ONOO- levels observed significant increased in cow milk, but decreased in buffalo when compared with other types milk. After the determination of the elements, the results showed a significant increased in Cu of human milk and decreased in sheep milk, while Zn levels increased significantly in buffalo milk but decreased in human milk and iron increased significantly in cow milk but decreased in human milk. Depending on age increasing of lactating women, mature milks were divided into three subgroups (16-25), (26-35) and (36-42) year. It was found that vitamin E, SOD, GSH, T.Bilir., uric acid and iron were decreased significantly for mature milk with the age increasing for lactating women, but increased in: GST, Alb, MDA and Cu.In conclusion, an increased antioxidants and decreased oxidants levels in: sheep milk, goat milk, cow milk, buffalo milk and human milk respectively. On the other hand, the study showed decreased antioxidant and increased oxidants levels in human breast milk with increasing aging of women and that might be affected on infants health.